Richard Parkes Bonington

Intaglio engraving, as a method of making prints, was invented in Germany by the 1430s, well after the woodcut print.


Intaglio printing is the opposite of relief printing, the image is cut or incised into a metal plate with various tools or with acids.

Basic types of Intaglio Printing consist of engraving the image into a plate with finely ground tools called needles, burnishers, scrapers, and rockers, and etching an image with acids.

The Renaissance

Vitruvian Man by Leonardo DaVinci, drawing on paper.

The development of perspective was part of a wider trend towards realism in the arts. To that end, painters also developed other techniques, studying light, shadow, and, famously in the case of Leonardo da Vinci, human anatomy.

The Renaissance was a cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Florence in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe.

Artists strove to portray the human form realistically, developing techniques to render perspective and light more naturally.

Interest in landscape had derived initially from a romantic view of the wonders of the universe.

Became more scientific as painters began to regard clouds, trees, rocks, and topography worthy of study.

Landscape, nature, and architecture provided congenial subjects for the first photographers.

Most of the 18th century had oil paintings, watercolors, engravings, and lithographs of topical views based on drawings made with the camera obscura.

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